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General Exams

My desk at home, about a month before I took the exams.

Yesterday I completed my general exams for my doctoral degree in the History of Science. Woot!! The process involved three eight-hour written exams followed by a two hour oral defense. The time-crunched writing was certainly stressful, and I was anxious about the oral exams. However, by far the most difficult part of it all was the preparation. So much reading! And then so much re-reading!!! The entire process was a constant reminder that education is a lifetime commitment. Expertise cannot be rushed. Despite the fact that I read many books and articles, and then re-read many books and articles, I’m sure I only partially understand what I’m studying (Ssshh… don’t tell my committee members).

For the curious, here was my official reading list for my three tested fields for my general exams. My fourth, and untested field was in Islamic Science, which I completed through coursework.


01. Optics & Theories of Vision


Alpers, Svetlana. The Art of Describing: Dutch Art in the Seventeenth Century. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983.

Clark, Stuart. Vanities of the Eye: Vision in Early Modern European Culture. Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

Chen-Morris, Raz. Measuring Shadows: Kepler’s Optics of Invisibility. University Park, PA: Penn State Press, 2016.

Darrigol, Olivier. A History of Optics From Greek Antiquity to the Nineteenth Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Denery, Dallas G. Seeing and Being Seen in the Later Medieval World : Optics, Theology, and Religious Life. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

Edgerton, Samuel Y. The Mirror, the Window, and the Telescope: How Renaissance Linear Perspective Changed Our Vision of the Universe. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2009.

Elkins, James. The Poetics of Perspective. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1994.

Kepler, Johannes. Optics: Paralipomena to Witelo & Optical Part of Astronomy. Translated by William H Donahue. Santa Fe, N.M.: Green Lion Press, 2000.

Kleinberg-Levin, David Michael. Sites of Vision: The Discursive Construction of Sight in the History of Philosophy. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1997.

Lindberg, David C. Theories of Vision From Al-Kindi to Kepler. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976.

Early Modern Eyes. Edited by Walter S Melion and Lee Palmer Wandel. Leiden: Brill, 2010.

Maurolico, Francesco. The Photismi De Lumine of Maurolycus; A Chapter in Late Medieval Optics. Translated by Henry Crew. New York: The Macmillan company, 1940.

Milner, Matthew. The Senses and the English Reformation. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2011.

The Origins of the Telescope. Edited by Albert Van Helden, Sven Dupré, Rob van Gent and Huib Zuidervaart. Amsterdam: KNAW Press, 2010.

Panofsky, Erwin. Perspective As Symbolic Form. New York: Zone Books, 1991.

Peckham, John. John Pecham and the Science of Optics: Perspectiva Communis. Edited by David C Lindberg. Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, 1970.

Peter of Limoges. The Moral Treatise on the Eye. Edited by Richard Newhauser. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 2012.

Quinlan-McGrath, Mary. Influences: Art, Optics, and Astrology in the Italian Renaissance. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013.

Religion and the Senses in Early Modern Europe. Edited by Wietse de Boer and Christine Göttler. Leiden: Brill, 2013.

Renaissance Theories of Vision. Edited by John Shannon Hendrix and Charles H. Carman. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2010.

Smith, A. Mark. From Sight to Light: The Passage From Ancient to Modern Optics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2014.

Szulakowska, Urszula. The Alchemy of Light: Geometry and Optics in Late Renaissance Alchemical Illustration. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

Tachau, Katherine H. Vision and Certitude in the Age of Ockham: Optics, Epistemology, and the Foundations of Semantics, 1250-1345. Leiden: Brill, 1988.

Theory of Visual Perception: A Critical Edition, with English Translation and Commentary, of the First Three Books of Alhacen’s De Aspectibus, the Medieval Latin Version of Ibn Al-Haytham’s Kitab Al-Manazir. Edited by A Mark Smith. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 2001.

Vision and Its Instruments: Art, Science, and Technology in Early Modern Europe. Edited by Alina Alexandra Payne. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2015.

Waddell, Mark. Jesuit Science and the End of Nature’s Secrets. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2015.

Willach, Rolf. The Long Route to the Invention of the Telescope. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 2008.



Abou-Nemeh, S Catherine. “The Natural Philosopher and the Microscope: Nicolas Hartsoeker Unravels Nature’s” Admirable Oeconomy”.” History of Science 51, no. 170 (2013): 1-32.

Ashworth, William B. “Divine Reflections and Profane Refractions: Images of a Scientific Impasse in Seventeenth-Century Italy.” In Gianlorenzo Bernini: New Aspects of His Art and Thought: A Commemorative Volume. Edited by I. Lavin. London: University Park, 1985.

Ashworth, William B. “Light of Reason, Light of Nature. Catholic and Protestant Metaphors of Scientific Knowledge.” Science in Context 3, no. 01 (1989): 89-107.

Borrelli, Arianna. “Thinking with Optical Objects: Glass Spheres, Lenses and Refraction in Giovan Battista Della Porta’s Optical Writings.” Journal of Early Modern Studies 3, no. 1 (2014): 39-61.

Clark, Stuart. “The Reformation of the Eyes: Apparitions and Optics in Sixteenth-and Seventeenth-Century Europe.” Journal of religious history 27, no. 2 (2003): 143-160.

de Boer, Wietse. “A Neapolitan Heaven: The Sensory Universe of G.B. Giustiniani.” In Religion and the Senses in Early Modern Europe. Edited by Wietse de Boer and Christine Göttler. Leiden: Brill, 2013.

Dupré, Sven, “Images in the Air: Optical Games, Magic and Imagination,” in Spirits Unseen: The Representation of Subtle Bodies in Early Modern European Culture. Edited by Christine Göttler and Wolfgang Neuber. Leiden ; Boston: Brill, 2008.

Dupré, Sven. “The Return of the Species: Jesuit Responses to Kepler’s New Theory of Images.” In Religion and the Senses in Early Modern Europe. Edited by Wietse de Boer and Christine Göttler. Leiden: Brill, 2013.

Dupré, Sven. “Galileo’s Telescope and Celestial Light.” Journal for the History of Astronomy 34 (2003): 369-399.

Dupré, Sven. “The Dioptrics of Refractive Dials in the Sixteenth Century.” Nuncius 18, no. 1 (2003): 39-67.

Dupré, Sven. “Renaissance Optics: Instruments, Practical Knowledge and the Appropriation of Theory.” In Renaissance Optics: Instruments, Practical Knowledge and the Appropriation of Theory. Max Planck Institute for the History of Science, 2003.

Dupré, Sven. “Ausonio’s Mirrors and Galileo’s Lenses: The Telescope and Sixteenth-Century Practical Optical Knowledge.” Galilaeana , no. 2 (2005): 1000-1038.

Dupré, Sven. “Kepler’s Optics Without Hypotheses.” Synthese 185, no. 3 (2012): 501-525.

Farinella, Alessandro G, and Carole Preston. “Giordano Bruno: Neoplatonism and the Wheel of Memory in The “De Umbris Idearum”.” Renaissance quarterly (2002): 596-624.

Gal, Offer, and Raz Chen-Morris. “Empiricism Without the Senses: How the Instrument Replaced the Eye.” In The Body As Object and Instrument of Knowledge Embodied Empiricism in Early Modern Science. Edited by Charles T Wolfe and Ofer Gal. Dordrecht: Springer, 2010.

Gal, Ofer, and Raz Chen-Morris. “The Archaeology of the Inverse Square Law: (1) Metaphysical Images and Mathematical Practices.” History of science 43 (2005): 391-414.

Gal, Ofer, and Raz Chen-Morris. “Baroque Optics and the Disappearance of the Observer: From Kepler’s Optics to Descartes’ Doubt.” Journal of the History of Ideas 71, no. 2 (2010): 191-217.

García Santo-Tomás, Enrique. “Fortunes of the Occhiali Politici in Early Modern Spain: Optics, Vision, Points of View.” PMLA 124, no. 1 (2009): 59-75.

Vanagt, Katrien. “Early Modern Medical Thinking on Vision and the Camera Obscura. V.F. Plempius’ Ophthalmographia.” In Blood, Sweat, and Tears: The Changing Concepts of Physiology From Antiquity Into Early Modern Europe. Edited by H F J Horstmanshoff, Helen King and Claus Zittel. Leiden: Brill, 2012.

Lindberg, David. “The Genesis of Kepler’s Theory of Light: Light Metaphysics From Plotinus to Kepler.” Osiris 2 (1986): 4-42.

Lindberg, David C. “On the Applicability of Mathematics to Nature: Roger Bacon and His Predecessors.” The British Journal for the History of Science 15, no. 01 (1982): 3-25.

Pantin, Isabelle. “Simulachrum, Species, Forma, Imago: What Was Transported by Light Into the Camera Obscura?: Divergent Conceptions of Realism Revealed by Lexical Ambiguities at the Beginning of the Seventeenth Century.” Early science and medicine 13, no. 3 (2008): 245-269.

Saito, Fumikazu. “Knowing by Doing in the Sixteenth Century Natural Magic: Giambattista Della Porta and the Wonders of Nature.” Circumscribere: International Journal for the History of Science 14 (2014): 1-10.

Smith, A Mark. “Saving the Appearances of the Appearances: The Foundations of Classical Geometrical Optics.” Archive for history of exact sciences 24, no. 2 (1981): 73-99.

Smith, A Mark. “Getting the Big Picture in Perspectivist Optics.” Isis; an international review devoted to the history of science and its cultural influences 72, no. 264 (1981): 568-89.

Smith, A Mark. “Ptolemy, Alhazen, and Kepler and the Problem of Optical Images.” Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 8, no. 01 (1998): 9-44.

Smith, A Mark. “What Is the History of Medieval Optics Really About?” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society (2004): 180-194.

Smith, A. Mark. “Alhacen’s Approach to ‘Alhazen’s Problem’.” Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 18, no. 02 (2008): 143-163.

Tarrant, Neil. “Giambattista Della Porta and the Roman Inquisition: Censorship and the Definition of Nature’s Limits in Sixteenth-century Italy.” The British Journal for the History of Science 46, no. 04 (2013): 601-625.


02. History of the Book


Agent of Change: Print Culture Studies After Elizabeth L. Eisenstein. Edited by Eric N. Lindquist, Eleanor F. Shevlin and Sabrina Alcorn Baron. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2007.

Arab Painting: Text and Image in Illustrated Arabic Manuscripts. Edited by Anna Contadini. Boston: Brill, 2010.

Author, Reader, Book: Medieval Authorship in Theory and Practice. Edited by Stephen Bradford Partridge and Erik Kwakkel. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2012.

Beach, Alison I. Women As Scribes: Book Production and Monastic Reform in Twelfth-century Bavaria. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Chartier, Roger. The Order of Books: Readers, Authors, and Libraries in Europe Between the Fourteenth and Eighteenth Centuries. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1994.

Clemens, Raymond, and Timothy Graham. Introduction to Manuscript Studies. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2007.

Dane, Joseph A. The Myth of Print Culture: Essays on Evidence, Textuality, and Bibliographical Method. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2003.

Eisenstein, Elizabeth L. The Printing Press As An Agent of Change: Communications and Cultural Transformations in Early Modern Europe. 2 vols. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1979.

Eisenstein, Elizabeth L. The Printing Revolution in Early Modern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

Febvre, Lucien, and Henri-Jean Martin. The Coming of the Book: The Impact of Printing 1450-1800. Edited by Geoffrey Nowell-Smith and David Wootton. Translated by David Gerard. London: New Left Books, 1976.

Grafton, Anthony. Defenders of the Text: The Traditions of Scholarship in An Age of Science, 1450-1800. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991.

Hirsch, Rudolf. Printing, Selling and Reading, 1450-1550. Wiesbaden, Harrassowitz, 1967.

Johns, Adrian. The Nature of the Book: Print and Knowledge in the Making. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1998.

McKitterick, David. Print, Manuscript, and the Search for Order, 1450-1830. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

McLuhan, Marshall. The Gutenberg Galaxy; The Making of Typographic Man. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1962.

The Medieval Manuscript Book: Cultural Approaches. Edited by Michael Johnston and Michael Van Dussen. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015.

Ong, Walter J. Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word. Routledge, 2012.

Pettegree, Andrew. The Book in the Renaissance. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2010.

Sherman, William. Used Books: Marking Readers in Renaissance England. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008.

The Social Life of Illumination: Manuscripts, Images, and Communities in the Late Middle Ages. Edited by J. Coleman, M. Cruse and K. A. Smith. Brepols, 2013.

Steinberg, Sigfrid Henry. Five Hundred Years of Printing. New York: Pelican, 1959.



Barbierato, Federico. “Writing, Reading, Writing: Scribal Culture and Magical Texts in Early Modern Venice.” Italian Studies 66, no. 2 (2011): 263-276.

Bell, Bill. “Symposium: What Was the History of the Book? Introduction.” Modern Intellectual History 4, no. 03 (2007): 491-494.

Blair, Ann. “Reading Strategies for Coping with Information Overload Ca. 1550-1700.” Journal for the History of Ideas 64, no. 1 (2003): 11-28.

Boutcher, Warren. “Collecting Manuscripts and Printed Books in the Late Renaissance: Naudé and the Last Duke of Urbino’s Library.” Italian Studies 66, no. 2 (2011): 206-220.

Brantley, Jessica. “The Prehistory of the Book.” PMLA (2009): 632-639.

Burke, Peter. “A Social History of Knowledge Revisited.” Modern Intellectual History 4, no. 03 (2007): 521-535.

Carter, John, and Nicolas Barker. ABC for Book-collectors. 8th ed. London, Mercury Books, 2006.

Chartier, Roger. “Labourers and Voyagers: From the Text to the Reader.” Diacritics 22, no. 2 (1992): 49-61.

Chartier, Roger. “The Order of Books Revisited.” Modern Intellectual History 4, no. 03 (2007): 509-519.

Connolly, Margaret. “Evidence for the Continued Use of Medieval Medical Prescriptions in the Sixteenth Century: A Fifteenth-Century Remedy Book and Its Later Owner.” Medical history 60, no. 2 (2016): 133-54.

Darnton, Robert. “What Is the History of Books?” Daedalus 111, no. 3 (1982): 65-83.

Darnton, Robert. “The Heresies of Bibliography.” The New York Review of Books 50, no. 9 (2003): 43-45.

Darnton, Robert. “What Is the History of Books?” Revisited.” Modern Intellectual History 4, no. 03 (2007): 495-508.

Diehl, Peter. “An Inquisitor in Manuscript and in Print: The Tractatus Super Materia Hereticorum of Zanchino Ugolini.” In The Book Unbound: Editing and Reading Medieval Manuscripts and Texts. Edited by Siân Echard and Stephen Partridge. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2004.

Eisenstein, Elizabeth L. “The Advent of Printing in Current Historical Literature: Notes and Comments on An Elusive Transformation.” The American Historical Review 75, no. 3 (1970): 727-743.

Eisenstein, Elizabeth L. “An Unacknowledged Revolution Revisited.” The American Historical Review 107, no. 1 (2002): 87-105.

Eisenstein, Elizabeth L. “Reply.” The American Historical Review 107, no. 1 (2002): 126-128.

Finkelstein, David, and Alistair McCleery. An Introduction to Book History. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2013.

Grafton, Anthony. “How Revolutionary Was the Print Revolution? (Introduction).” American Historical Review 107, no. 1 (2002): 84-86.

Hackenberg, Michael. “Books in Artisan Homes of Sixteenth-century Germany.” Journal of library history 21, no. 1 (1986): 72-91.

Hall, David D. “What Was the History of the Book? A Response.” Modern Intellectual History 4, no. 03 (2007): 537-544.

Hudson, Nicholas. “Challenging Eisenstein: Recent Studies in Print Culture.” Eighteenth-Century Life 26, no. 2 (2002): 83-95.

Jardine, Lisa, and Anthony Grafton. ” Studied for Action: How Gabriel Harvey Read His Livy.” Past & Present, no. 129 (1990): 30-78.

Knight, Jeffrey Todd. “‘Furnished’ for Action: Renaissance Books As Furniture.” Book History 12, no. 1 (2009): 37-73.

Kuskin, William. Symbolic Caxton: Literary Culture and Print Capitalism. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2008.

Kwaakel, Erik. “Commercial Organization and Economic Innovation.” In The Production of Books in England 1350-1500. Edited by Daniel Wakelin and Alexandra Gillespie. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

McCutcheon, R W. “Silent Reading in Antiquity and the Future History of the Book.” Book History 18, no. 1 (2015): 1-32.

McKenzie, Donald F. “Printers of the Mind: Some Notes on Bibliographical Theories and Printing-house Practices.” Studies in Bibliography: Papers of the Bibliographical Society of the University of Virginia 22 (1969): 1-75.

McKitterick, David. “Histories of the Book and Histories of Antwerp.” Quaerendo 35, no. 1-2 (2005): 3-19.

McWilliams, Mary, and David J Roxburgh. Traces of the Calligrapher: Islamic Calligraphy in Practice, C. 1600-1900. Houston: Yale University Press, 2007.

Overty, Joanne Filippone. “The Cost of Doing Scribal Business: Prices of Manuscript Books in England, 1300–1483.” Book History 11, no. 1 (2008): 1-32.

Reeds, Karen. “All the Tools Fit to Print.” Technology and culture 54, no. 2 (2013): 373-376.

Rubin, Joan Shelley. “What Is the History of the History of Books?” The Journal of American History 90, no. 2 (2003): 555-575.

Shevlin, Eleanor F, and Eric N Lindquist. “The Center for the Book and the History of the Book.” Libraries & the Cultural Record 45, no. 1 (2010): 56-69.

Taylor, A. “Authors, Scribes, Patrons and Books.” In The Idea of the Vernacular: An Anthology of Middle English Literary Theory, 1280-1520. Edited by Jocelyn Wogan-Browne, N. Watson, A. Taylor and R. Evans. Exeter, UK: University of Exeter Press, 1999.


03. Reformation/Counter-Reformation History


Arnade, Peter J. Beggars, Iconoclasts, and Civic Patriots: The Political Culture of the Dutch Revolt. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2008.

Barbierato, Federico. The Inquisitor in the Hat Shop: Inquisition, Forbidden Books, and Unbelief in Early Modern Venice. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2012.

Benedict, Philip. Christ’s Churches Purely Reformed: A Social History of Calvinism. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002.

Bergin, Joseph. The Politics of Religion in Early Modern France. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2014.

Bireley, Robert. Ferdinand II, Counter-Reformation Emperor, 1578-1637. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Bonomi, Patricia U. Under the Cope of Heaven: Religion, Society and Politics in Colonial America. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Burnett, Amy Nelson. Teaching the Reformation: Ministers and Their Message in Basel, 1529-1629. Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

John Calvin, Myth and Reality: Images and Impact of Geneva’s Reformer. Edited by Amy Nelson Burnett. Eugene, OR: Cascade Books, 2011.

Clark, Stuart. Thinking with Demons: The Idea of Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Davis, Natalie Zemon. Trickster Travels: A Sixteenth-century Muslim Between Worlds. New York: Hill and Wang, 2007.

Dixon, C Scott. Protestants: A History From Wittenberg to Pennsylvania, 1517-1740. Chichester, West Sussex, U.K.: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.

Duffy, Eamon. The Stripping of the Altars: Traditional Religion in England, C.1400-c.1580. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2005.

Eire, Carlos M. N. War Against the Idols: The Reformation of Worship From Erasmus to Calvin. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

Fudge, Thomas A. The Magnificent Ride: The First Reformation in Hussite Bohemia. Aldershot: Ashgate, 1998.

Greengrass, Mark. Christendom Destroyed: Europe 1517-1648. New York: Penguin Books, 2015.

Greer, Allan. Mohawk Saint: Catherine Tekakwitha and the Jesuits. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Kaplan, Benjamin J. Divided by Faith: Religious Conflict and the Practice of Toleration in Early Modern Europe. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009.

Karant-Nunn, Susan. The Reformation of Ritual: An Interpretation of Early Modern Germany. Routledge, 2005.

Kolb, Robert. Luther’s Heirs Define His Legacy: Studies on Lutheran Confessionalization. Brookfield, Vt.: Variorum, 1996.

Lohse, Bernhard. Martin Luther’s Theology: Its Historical and Systematic Development. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 1999.

Maag, Karin. Melanchthon in Europe: His Work and Influence Beyond Wittenberg. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1999.

Michelson, Emily. The Pulpit and the Press in Reformation Italy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013.

O’Malley, John W. The First Jesuits. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993.

Oberman, Heiko Augustinus. Luther: Man Between God and the Devil. Translated by Eileen Walliser-Schwarzbart. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1989.

Calvinism in Europe, 1540-1620. Edited by Andrew Pettegree, A C Duke and Gillian Lewis. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Pitkin, Barbara. What Pure Eyes Could See: Calvin’s Doctrine of Faith in Its Exegetical Context. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1999.

European Universities in the Age of Reformation and Counter Reformation. Edited by Helga Robinson-Hammerstein. Dublin: Four Courts Press, 1998.

Schreiner, Susan Elizabeth. The Theater of His Glory: Nature and the Natural Order in the Thought of John Calvin. Durham, N.C.: Labyrinth Press, 1991.

Scribner, Robert W. For the Sake of Simple Folk: Popular Propaganda for the German Reformation. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Scribner, Robert W, Roy Porter, and Mikuláš Teich. The Reformation in National Context. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Spicer, Andrew. Lutheran Churches in Early Modern Europe. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2012.

Starr-LeBeau, Gretchen D. In the Shadow of the Virgin Inquisitors, Friars, and “Conversos” in Guadalupe, Spain. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2003.

Walsham, Alexandra. Charitable Hatred: Tolerance and Intolerance in England, 1500-1700. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2006.

Wandel, Lee Palmer. The Eucharist in the Reformation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Whitford, David A. A Reformation Life: The European Reformation Through the Eyes of Philipp of Hesse. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2015.

Wickersham, Jane K. Rituals of Prosecution: The Roman Inquisition and the Prosecution of Philo-Protestants in Sixteenth-century Italy. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2012.

Women in the Inquisition: Spain and the New World. Edited by Mary E Giles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.

Zagorin, Perez. Ways of Lying: Dissimulation, Persecution, and Conformity in Early Modern Europe. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990.



Barbierato, Federico. “Writing, Reading, Writing: Scribal Culture and Magical Texts in Early Modern Venice.” Italian Studies 66, no. 2 (2011): 263-276.

Diefendorf, Barbara. “Prologue to a Massacre: Popular Unrest in Paris, 1557-1572.” The American Historical Review 90, no. 5 (1985): 1067-1091.

Eire, Carlos M. N. “Calvin and Nicodemism: A Reappraisal.” The Sixteenth Century Journal (1979): 45-69.

Cameron, Euan. “One Reformation or Many? Protestant Identities in Later Reformation Germany.” In Tolerance and Intolerance in the European Reformation. Edited by Ole Peter Grell and Bob Scribner. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Grendler, Paul F. “The Universities of the Renaissance and Reformation.” Renaissance quarterly 57, no. 1 (2004): 1-42.

Lake, Peter, and Michael Questier. “Agency and Appropriation at the Foot of the Gallows: Catholics (and Puritans) Confront (and Constitute) the English State.” In The Antichrist’s Lewd Hat: Protestants, Papists and Players in Post-Reformation England. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003.

Scribner, Robert W. “The Reformation, Popular Magic, and The” Disenchantment of the World”.” Journal of Interdisciplinary History (1993): 475-494.

Starn, Randolph. “The Early Modern Muddle.” Journal of Early Modern History 6, no. 3 (2002): 296-307.

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